The Attraction of Malaysian TVET

First of all, congratulations to YB Nurul Izzah Anwar for the appointment as the Head of TVET Committees in Malaysia. This is in conjunction with the press statement made by the Minister of Education of Malaysia on 21st June 2018, YB Dr. Maszlee Malik. TVET stands for Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Prior to this announcement, TVET is always referred to the agenda under the Ministry of Human Resources of Malaysia whilst the implementation of its training and education curricula had been carried out by various ministries including Ministry of Education, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Higher Education, Ministry of Rural Development, and Ministry of Tourism and Culture.

Apart from the political arrangements and the domestic issues on this matter, I would like to make a brief comparison on the ministerial and administration agencies that had made this movement practical in other countries. This post is intended to be deliberated from the viewpoints of intellectuality and feasibility of this policy that had already been delivered by various countries in the world and occasionally share their political, economic, and social growth conferences between each other.

Prior to this post, I had already made a post on the TVET and Its Landscape in Malaysia annotating the different functions and roles between the major ministries that are participating in this movement. I have also briefly quoting major skills qualification frameworks within the ASEAN countries in another blog post. Please feel free to revisit those posts if you are kind of lost on why I am highlighting this issue for this entry.

Every movement, policy and decision made are usually based on tremendous study and research within the specific thematic work and previous work deliverables. The decision of putting the skills qualification administration and management under the Ministry of Human Resources (MoHR) Malaysia had also its share on its inception. Perhaps, in analogy we can take from the viewpoint of a production-based company or organisation. Every organisation has its human resources department. This department is responsible to ensure that its employees are keep updated with the latest technology and skills equipment so that the quality of work and the quantity of production can match the demand from the clients. The employees, in this case, are in reference to those working in the production line with the positions of operators, and even up to the supervisory level. Hence, the rationale on why the movement of TVET in Malaysia was originally foreseen by the MoHR.

As time passes by, these employees demanded that they should also be given the opportunities to further their studies to a higher level qualification. From skills-based to academic endeavour. These workers requested that the academic-based agencies should recognise their abilities in the skills that they have displayed and contributed so that they would also be qualified for a higher degree programmes from prestigious higher learning institutions. This had triggered the mismatch between the skills qualification certification with the admission requirements by the universities decision makers.

Ministerial Comparisons
Figure 1. The Ministerial Comparison of TVET Administration Between Malaysia with the Rest of the World.

The above figure is showing the Ministerial Comparison of TVET Administration Between Malaysia with the Rest of the World including the ASEAN countries and major developed countries. The choices of administering ministries are from both of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Labour (which is also similar to MoHR). Each has her own reason on why such specific agency was chosen over another. There are also countries that have distinct agencies that manage and administer TVET movement without much dependent on their main ministries.

From the diagram, it is learned that most countries believe that it is best that TVET is under the administration of Ministry of Education. Only third countries like Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam and including Malaysia had decided that MoHR is much suitable [1]. As an additional information, European Countries have their own governing agency that manages the TVET movement which is known as CEDEFOP (stands for European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training). Among participating countries under the administration of CEDEFOP include Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom [2]. On the other hand, countries like Japan which is very much well-known for its high-skilled workers and disciplined people had also decided that its best for TVET to be foreseen by their Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology [3].

Personally, I am looking forward to the positive changes that might be brought upon by the Government of Malaysia on issues pertaining TVET and its relevancy, qualifications and prospects either locally or internationally. Each action has its strengths and weaknesses. Might as well that we study the background and history of a policy made to project a better outcome and lower the setbacks that we have encountered in the past.

All the best for all TVET practitioners.

References:

[1] ILO, URL: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—asia/—ro-bangkok/—sro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_310231.pdf

[2] CEDEFOP, URL: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources

[3] THE CHANGING STATUS OF VOCATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION IN CONTEMPORARY JAPAN AND THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA, URL: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001868/186837e.pdf

Other Sources:

[1] ASQA

[2] City & Guilds

[3] SQA

[4] BMBF

[5] US Skills Training

[6] MQA

[7] DSD, MoHR

TVET and Its Landscape in Malaysia

TVET and the Landscape of Skills Training in Malaysia

Someone asked me, “Do you know about TVET?”

I said, “Yes, I do.”

Then he further enquired, “Can you help me to give briefing about this thing?”

I was skeptical. TVET in Malaysia involves at least 7 ministries with different and diverse purpose, objectives, certification and recognition.

Then I asked him in return, “In what way that you wanted the briefing be?”

“Are you authorized to talk about it?”

He said, “Yes. I was given the authority to talk about it and I am going to talk about TVET in Polytechnics in Malaysia.”

I nodded. Understood. He was just asking about one tenth (1/10) only of the real scenario and landscape of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Malaysia.

TVET Landscape Malaysia

Basically, TVET involves the following ministries:

  1. Ministry of Human Resources (Kementerian Sumber Manusia) which coordinates the TVET and Skills Qualification for Occupational Framework in Malaysia, specifically for the skills training at the institutions under this ministry which is administered by Manpower Department (Jabatan Tenaga manusia) including: Institut Latihan Perindustrian (ILP) – 23 centres, Advanced Technology Training Centre (ADTEC) – 8 centres, Japan-Malaysian Technical Institute (JMTI) – 1 centre and Centre for Instructors and Advanced Skills Training (CIAST) – 1 centre.

Simultaneously, this ministry also administers the accreditation, certification, recognition and qualification of the skills training centres and skilled workforce including the issuance of certification for accredited centers and skilled personnel. For such a purpose the main agency that delivers this is the Department of Skills Development (Jabatan Pembangunan Kemahiran). The certificate issued by this agency is known as Malaysian Skills Certificate (Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia), Malaysian Skills Diploma (Diploma Kemahiran Malaysia), and Malaysia Skills Advanced Diploma (Diploma Lanjutan Kemahiran Malaysia).

2. Ministry of Higher Education (Kementerian Pendidikan Tinggi). This ministry coordinates the higher learning institutions specifically those that deliver the modules for TVET which include Polytechnics and Community Colleges. There are about 36 polytechnics and 94 community colleges all over Malaysia. These centres are administered by Department of Higher Learning (Jabatan Pengajian Tinggi).

However, there is no specific single accreditation or certification body that administers the issuance of the certificates for polytechnics and community colleges. Each will issue its own certificate to the students whilst the authorization for training implementation is solely delivered under the approval of its governing agency i.e. JPT.

(For an additional note, Ministry of Higher Education puts more efforts and deliberation on the accreditation of higher learning institutions especially for the level of education that leads to the conferment of the degrees for Bachelor, Master, and Doctorate which is managed by Malaysian Qualifications Agency (MQA)).

3. Ministry of Youth and Sports (Kementerian Belia dan Sukan). The training centres under the supervision of this ministry include: Institut Kemahiran Belia Negara (IKBN) – 13 centres, Institut Kemahiran Tinggi Belia Negara (IKTBN) – 8 centres, and Akademi Kemahiran Belia Golf (AKBG) – 1 centre. This ministry solely follows the regulations and procedures of accreditation set by JPK, KSM (as mentioned in No. 1 above) for the issuance of their SKM, DKM, and DLKM besides their in-house certification procedures and graduation requirements.

4. Ministry of Education (Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia). The training centres under this ministry that observe the implementation of TVET include: Kolej Vokasional (KV) – 77 centres and more than 60 secondary schools that offer classes for the skills modules which is known as Program Asas Vokasional (PAV). This ministry follows both the regulations and procedures of accreditation set by JPK, KSM (as mentioned in No. 1 above) and the procedures by the ministry itself under the supervision of Division of Technical and Vocational Education (Bahagian Pendidikan Teknik dan Vokasional).

As a matter of fact, as a graduation fulfilment for the trainees that undergo the programmes under this ministry, they are qualified to be awarded with double skills certificates which include either the combination of or one of the following: Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia (SKM) / Sijil Vokasional Malaysia (SVM), Diploma Kemahiran Malaysia (DKM) / Diploma Vokasional Malaysia (DVM), and Diploma Lanjutan Kemahiran Malaysia (DLKM) / Diploma Lanjutan Vokasional Malaysia (DLVM).

5. Ministry of Agriculture (Kementerian Pertanian). The training centres under this ministry that observe the implementation of TVET and skills training are managed by National Agriculture Training Council (NATC) which include: Institut Pertanian – 7 centres, Institut Perikanan – 3 centres, and Institut Veterinar – 2 centres. This ministry does not issue its own certification procedure rather than following the rules and regulations set by JPK, KSM (as mentioned in No. 1 above). Whilst, the accreditation and authorization for training implementation is solely delivered under the approval of its governing agency i.e. NATC.

6. Ministry of Rural and Regional Development (Kementerian Kemajuan Luar Bandar dan Wilayah). This ministry observe the TVET implementation. However, currently it is issuing its certification for its trainees under its own regulations and procedures and yet to coordinate with the rest of TVET institutions as mentioned in items No. 1 -5. The training centres under this ministry is managed by Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA) which include: Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi MARA (KKTM) – 10 centres, Institut Kemahiran MARA (IKM) – 14 centres, MARA-Japan Industrial Institute (MJII) – 1 centre and GiatMARA (various numbers).

7. Ministry of Tourism and Culture (Kementerian Pelancongan dan Kebudayaan). This ministry, like KBS (item No. 3) and MOA (item No. 5), does not issue its own training certification procedure rather than following the rules and regulations set by JPK, KSM (as mentioned in No. 1 above). However, they do have the control on the issuance on the licensing and accreditation of their training centres and tourism agencies. The training centres under this ministry is known as Institut Latihan Pelancongan (Tourism Training Institute, ILP) which the number is not made public.

The subject matter of TVET and its development is indeed a universal subject in this country besides the requirements in the mainstream of education system and higher learning institutions. Nobody can claim that they own this particular subject matter more than another parties because each carries its own distinct functions, roles and responsibilities. Hence, it is wise to regard TVET as a national subject among the public, parents, and business matter interests.

Sources:

  1. Malaysia – National Skills Development Act (NASDA) 2006, (Act 652), DSD.
  2. Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi), MOHE.
  3. ANSSR – Enhancing the Quality and Relevance of TVET for Current and Future Industry Needs, APEC.
  4. Qualification and Skills Mismatch – Concept and Measurement, ILO.
  5. Assessment of the Readiness of ASEAN Member States for Implementation of the Commitment to the Free Flow of Skilled Labour Within the ASEAN Economic Community (2015), ILO.
  6. International Labour Standard on Vocational Guidance and Training, ILO.