Computer and Humanity

For the past one month, it happened that I had attended and delivered series of talks on the topic of Industrial Revolution 4.0 particularly in human capital development and the projection of the workforce in Malaysia. Though debates have been actively highlighted that we are yet to be at that revolution level, the interest among the governmental agencies as well as the manufacturing, production and computer-based industries had been contributing to the healthy discourses and practical implementation in this country.

For the past couple of talks that I have done, my children had followed suit. They said, this is one of their favourite slides that I have presented that they enjoyed on the significance of its existence. You see, the children’s opinions and feedbacks are of equal importance to me because the revolution is for them and the projection of future generation is certainly for their better life. So, I took upon their comment to publish this particular posting about the explanation behind this picture.

About Computer and Humanity.

Because today’s generation was born with an environment that every physical thing is connected by one another if not more than two, at least they saw most of their computer-aided systems are just around the corner in their houses. They had missed the fact that the origin of those words were not actually coming from the computing world. For example, ‘thread‘ in a social media application is actually an adaptation to the ‘thread‘ that connects two pieces of clothes when we do sewing. Or the word ‘viral‘ which is also mainly used in social media applications is actually originated from the ‘viral‘ that may cause diseases in health sciences and medical studies. And perhaps, one last example is the word ‘meme‘ which was not originally English rather a greek word for showing an imitation, had evolved to be of a thing within the Internet media users. The Internet ‘meme‘ means an image, video, piece of text, etc., typically humorous in nature, that is copied and spread rapidly by Internet users, often with slight variations (Google Dictionary).

Computer and Humanity

Back to the picture shown in this posting. Those are among the adapted English words that have different meaning from its original areas of study but had evolved to something new in the computing and Internet World. Though to some people, this development is quite disturbing, it is in fact inevitable because of its nature of quickly being spread over the Internet. The trend-setters were sometimes unintentional. But once it has been used by more than one community, it was accepted as a universal terminology in the World of Computers.

  1. Cognitive is the study in the area of Psychology. Cognitive is about the brain and how it works in a human body in determining the good and the bad thing of an action or reaction to the problems encountered. However, the basis of this process had been taken that, that is how the computer works too. The computer imitates the brain of a human to process logic, truth, false, right or wrong in a decision making consequences.
  2. Cloud is a meteorological thing. It is in the sky. At least that was what we have been taught at schools. But for current generation, the cloud is something you use as a storage to your big data and other media and documents which is quite handy and less space taken in spite of the use of multiple flash disks or external hard disks. I guess, that is why the word cloud was chosen. You can see but you cannot touch. It is accessible where ever you go provided that you have the account settings and host servers.
  3. Heuristics is from the area of Psychology too. It is about how we perceive things when we receive the news. Different people measure different kind of news according to their experience and understanding. This is perhaps another reason on why the word was chosen in this particular study of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Through social media, a photo worth a thousand words. Different people interprets the meaning of a friend’s picture in many angles. That is the heuristics study in computing world.
  4. Neural Networks is a study within the Biological Nervous System. Our nervous system works as a coordinator from one signal in a body part to another for action and reaction. The neural network is another part of our function that works on how to do decision making when our body is facing certain conditions. Because of this function, the same application goes to the computing world. That the neural networks is adapting on how our body’s coordinator makes decision to our actions in the aspects of physical, emotional and rational of a cause.
  5. Ontology is created by philosophical people in the area of metaphysics. The ontology is the study on relationships. In metaphysics, one entity is connected to another by a factor. The relationship might be of mutual, cardinal or existential. This is a complex process of study. However, it has evolved to be of an important study in computer programming and knowledge-based representations too. The computer had translated the ontology in terms of its logic and the calculus of relationship from one entity to another.
  6. Semantics is from the area of linguistics. It is how people communicate and how to ensure that the interaction is perceived as per it was meant. It is not an easy task because the sender might mean something else but the receiver did not get the gist of the sender’s diction. This is how the semantics came into the limelight. Semantics is also emphasizing on how one item is connected to another and the predicate that explains it from its source. The study of semantics had begun to be rigorous since most of the computer-based applications need to understand the human needs in order for them to yield the expected values.
  7. Sentiment is a psychological study in human development. It imitates on how the people’s feelings particularly from visual images that they perceived. It is of importance to create a healthy sentiment in order to project a healthy development within a message. However, the viral messages and threads within the social media are mostly came from the negative sentiments among its users. Still, this kind of sentiment had been studied on what had caused the community to react in such a way to things that were unnecessary.
  8. Web is from the study of living thing. It’s a spider’s home. Easy to remember and perhaps easy to relate. Why it has been chosen as an Internet thing? Certainly because of its structure that connects from one point of to another and amazingly built with more than one level, a complex of spider threads, and quickly constructed, that is why the word Web was chosen to visualize the use of Internet.

You see, most of the applications in a computer system imitate the needs of a human development. It was once invented to help people in simplifying their tasks and problem solving to some daily complex systems. Computers in the house, in the office, in a laboratory, in governmental agencies, in manufacturing plants, in hospitals, in schools and many other buildings. To the extent that it is feared that these innovations might affect our next generations to be much dependable on the machines rather than their own judgements.

That is the main concern for this revolution and need to be addressed by us all. Together !

The STEM, Keywords and Career Choices

We know STEM stands for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. But not many know on what options do we have out of its knowledge and skills that it offers. This infographic might be simple and less details. But to some, I believe it would give so much meanings and direction to the much debated STEM abbreviation.

This is STEM from my point of view. This is especially for the young generations seeking the meaning of their education and subject matter streaming. I believe you are going to  wander more by just looking at this simple graphics.

STEM Diagram

Science is the fundamentals that hold stories about the basic things in life and living creatures.

Technology is the applications to the science and engineering that makes life easier and provision of facilities.

Engineering is the formulations to the scientific theories and provides support to most of living necessities.

Mathematics is the rules of logic that promotes common senses in making life a better living from one phase to another.

World Civilization and History of Technology

What makes our development of technology today is a yield of historical value of human kind ever since they have existed on this planet (i.e. Earth).

  1. Sumerian Civilization (3500 B.C. to 2000 B.C.), in the Middle East between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. It is the world’s first civilization where people lived together in a city-state. Invented a written language, developed science and mathematics to a high degree, developed a 12-month lunar calendar, invented wheel and made vehicles, and invented the plow and sailboat. The notable prophet to live in this era is Adam (A.S.).
  2. Babylonian Civilization (2000 B.C. to 1155 B.C.), located on the Euphrates River. It is the birthplace of a devised code of laws known as Code of Hammurabi, ability to study astronomy, and created beautiful gardens of Gate of Ishtar and Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The notable prophet to live in this era is Idris, Noah, and Ibrahim (A.S.).

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 5.46.44 PM
    Image source:
    https://www.history.com/news/hanging-gardens-existed-but-not-in-babylon
  3. Assyrian Civilization (1600 B.C. to 612 B.C.), in Northern Mesopotamia. It created the first library, built a system of road, ruled their extended kingdom with appointed governors, the first to develop a standing army, and developed a mail service. The notable prophet to live in this era include Ishaq, Ya’qub, and Ayyub (A.S.).
  4. Hittites Civilization (1750 B.C. to 1200 B.C.), located in Anatolia, the ancient name for Asian Minor. During this time, people started using iron, signed peace treaties, and established a set of laws considered the fairest of the time. The notable prophet during this time include Ilyas, Ilyasa’, Dawud (A.S.).
  5. Egyptian Civilization (3100 B.C. to 332 B.C.), located along the Nile River in northeast Africa. It built the pyramids; the sphinx; canals; and temples, invented solar calendar with 365 days, made a paper-like material from the papyrus plant, used a loom to weave cloth, and invented a system of writing called hieroglyphics. The generations to live in this era was believed to be from the son of Noah (A.S.) named Yafith.
  6. Chinese Civilization (beginning 5000 B.C.), in the valleys of the Huang He and Chang Jiang Rivers in Asia. It has created silk, Great Wall of China, gunpowders, rockets, magnetic compass, book printing, paper money, and porcelain.
  7. Mongol Civilization (A.D. 1206 to 1368), in the Steppe region between Siberia and northwest China. It was the largest contiguous empire in world history, excellent horsemen, and fierce warriors. This era occurred after the death of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
  8. Indus Valley Civilization (2500 B.C. to 1750 B.C.), in the Western part of South Asia in what is now Pakistan and western India. It built dams and canals for irrigation, well-planned cities, one of the world’s first drainage and sewer systems for a city, among the first people to cultivate cotton, among the first people to domesticate animals.
  9. Minoan Civilization (2000 B.C. to 1450 B.C.), in Crete, a large island between Asia Minor and Greece. It is the first civilization in Europe, one of the first social cultures with social equality, built elaborate palaces and large homes for its citizens, and women were treated more fairly than in other cultures of the time. This civilization emerges after the era of Prophet Nuh (A.S.) and most probably from his son named Sam.

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 5.48.40 PM
    image source: https://slideplayer.com/slide/9745654/
  10. Mycenaen Civilization (1650 B.C. to 1200 B.C.), on the mainland of Greece. They have systematic administration with leaders, warriors and war. Excellent traders and craftsmen. The generations most probably originated from son of Sam son of Prophet Noah (A.S.).
  11. Greek Civilization (800 B.C. to 323 B.C.), on the mainland of Greece and surrounding islands influencing colonies around Mediterranean Sea. It has formed the world’s first democracy system, dramas, and arts, built magnificent buildings, statues, literature, poetry, scientific approach to study of medicine, write histories, plants classification, rules for geometry and other mathematical contributions.

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 6.00.36 PM
    image source: https://www.thegreatcoursesplus.com/ancient-greek-civilization
  12. Celtic Civilization (800 B.C. to A.D 200), in Europe. It produced skillful artisan, artists, and musicians, excellent farmers, fearless warriors, built roads to expand into other countries, and the first people in Northern Europe to make iron.
  13. Viking Civilization (8th to 11th Century A.D.), in Scandinavian countries known as Norway, Denmark and Sweden in modern days. They have excellent seamen, navigators, craftsmen, shipbuilders, traders, explorers, and great story-tellers which they represent in the form of sagas, many of the name of the days are from the Norse language. They exist after the death of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
  14. Phoenician Civilization (2000 B.C. to 800 B.C.), in West Asia. Invention of alphabets, and writing systems, greatest traders, talented craftsmen, techniques of glassblowing, excellent navigators, sailors and shipbuilders. This generation is believed to be rooted from the son of Noah named Kana’an and notable prophets to live in this era include Hud, Saleh, Lut, Ismail, Shuib, Zulkifli, Yunus, and Yahya (A.S.).
  15. Hebrew Civilization (2000 B.C. to 30 B.C.), in the Middle East. It is a highlight on the origins of religions believing in One God, other related creations are such as Ten Commandments and the miracle of Torah and Old Testament. The notable prophets to live in this era include Ibrahim, Ishaq, Ya’qub, Yusuf, Ayyub, Musa, Harun, Zulkifli, Dawud, Sulaiman, Ilyas, Ilyasa’, Yunus, and Zakariya (A.S.).

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 5.56.52 PM
    image source: https://ourladyofgoodshepherd.net/twelve-tribes-of-israel
  16. Persian Civilization (550 B.C. to 330 B.C.), in the East of the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East. It built roads and canals, divided the empire into provinces, and wrote Avesta i.e. Persian holy book of Zoroasterism.
  17. Byzantine Civilization (A.D. 284 to 1450), in the Europe on the eastern section of Roman Empire. It preserved Greek and Roman Culture and Law, great works of art including architecture, mosaics, enamel work, ivory carving, metal work. It is enhancement of the spread of Christianity. It is an era of post-death of Prophet Isa and the spread of Islam by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers.

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 6.02.18 PM
    image source: https://slideplayer.com/slide/1585394/
  18. Olmec Civilization (1200 B.C. to 100 B.C.), in Southern Gulf coast of Mexico to El Salvador. It built temples, monuments, and pyramids, developed first calendar in Americas, carved huge stone heads, built stone pavements and drainage systems, and had counting systems.

As an additional factor to the different creations and inventions of materials, machines and methods by the mankind, the following notable empires are distinguishing them from one another:

  1. Etruscan Empire (800 B.C. to 300 B.C.)
  2. Alexander’s Empire (336 B.C. to 323 B.C.)
  3. Roman Empire (500 B.C. to A.D. 1453)
  4. Ottoman Empire (A.D. 800 to 1923). Many science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education are based upon the findings during this era. It has one notable era known as Islamic Golden Age where names like al-Khawarizmi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn Khuld, al-Jabar, al-Hazen, al-Kindi, and al-Biruni emerged. The technologies developed during this era include in metaphysics, astronomy, algebra, calculus, geometry, trigonometry, biology, physics, and chemistry.

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 6.04.51 PM
    image source: http://www.pearltrees.com/u/53944586-wikipedia-encyclopedia
  5. African Empire (2000 B.C. to present). It was believed that the generations that reside in this continent were originated from the son of Noah (A.S.) with the name of Ham. They have distinguished characteristics until today with many achievements and notable foundations.
  6. Mayan Empire (1000 B.C. to A.D. 900)
  7. Aztec Empire (A.D. 1200 to 1521)
  8. Inca Empire (A.D. 1100 to 1532)

 

Reference:

  1. Blattner, D. “World Civilizations and Cultures“, Mark Twain Media Inc., USA (2012).
  2. Syauqi Abu Khalil, “Atlas Al-Quran“, Dar al-Fikr, Damascus (2006). (Translated by Muhammad Abdul Ghoffar, Penerbit Almahira, Jakarta, Indonesia).

Industry 4.0 vs Society 5.0

The other day, we had a meeting with a Japanese counterpart on the mutual collaborations that we might be having for the next couple of years, we mentioned to him about adapting the approach of Industrial Revolution 4.0 into our work ethics and the applications that we might be able to benefit out of this era.

That Japanese man laughed hard. Left us puzzled. Did we say something wrong about it? Isn’t the Industry 4.0 as the thing right now? After a while, he gave us a reply that the Japanese weren’t keen about Industry 4.0 because they regard that as something to do with Germany’s work lifestyle. Not theirs. Left us feeling guilty of bringing up the topic. Left us to be much more careful as to what kind of approaches that we should discuss with them the next time.

After a week time, I have attended a workshop organised by a Japanese organisation which was also accompanied by another colleague. During our chit chatting time, she unintentionally mentioned about Industry 4.0 again to the Japanese representative with the expectation on how to move forward with practical project that we could plan. The Japanese counterpart wryly had to answer saying that, the Japanese are not in favour with the theme. They are actually having another revolution that they saw as better than the German’s Industry 4.0. That has made us rolling our eyes. She said, the Japanese are now looking forward towards realizing the revolution of Society 5.0.

Society 5.0! Well, at that point onwards, I began digging the scopes of this so-called Japanese Revolution.

Image 20180809 154909

(image source: http://analytics-magazine.org/industrie-4-0-analytics-everywhere/)


68b7dc5a-dd5c-4617-a2af-8d3ac97755d8

(image source: http://www8.cao.go.jp/cstp/english/society5_0/index.html)

As a matter of fact, the similarities that can be concluded from the two revolutions are:

  1. Both have the themes of Internet-of-Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Smart Machines, Knowledge Management and Smart Web to represent their work connectivity.
  2. Both emphasize on how people communicate with the machines and other people via the available Intelligent Machines.
  3. Both have the strengths of doing multitasking via various kind of automated media and computational platforms.
  4. Both are stressing on the work demand in this era as no more a single-job per man-hour, but always proceeded with another processes or as a medium to another procedures.
  5. Both are stressing on the free movement of one process to another and less protocol needed to get the job done.
  6. Both promote sustainability engineering in the midst of progressive materially-proned technology by ensuring the preservation of nature and ecology are still at their best.

On contrary, perhaps the differences that can be observed from these two ideologies are:

  1. Industry 4.0 is emphasizing on how to let the job done. Where as the Society 5.0 is emphasizing on how to optimise the man-hour responsibility to get the job done.
  2. Industry 4.0 is highlighting on the effectiveness of using the automated machines. Where as the Society 5.0 is highlighting on the effectiveness of optimising the knowledge worker with the help of the intelligent machines.
  3. Industry 4.0 is about computerised communications by all means. Where as the Society 5.0 is meant for the harmonisation of work with the help of intelligent machines for the benefit of the workers.

Nonetheless, their similarities beat the differences that both are optimising the use of machines, networking and computational intelligence in their work ethics. What matter most, the eccentric values of the two revolutions are on the ways  that those ideals are carried out and the work culture embedded by the people of Germany and the Japanese which have defined the pillars of their differences.

References:

  1. http://analytics-magazine.org/industrie-4-0-analytics-everywhere/
  2. http://www8.cao.go.jp/cstp/english/society5_0/index.html
  3. https://www.ibtimes.co.uk/mind-gap-industry-4-0-future-manufacturing-1665243
  4. https://www.japan.go.jp/abenomics/_userdata/abenomics/pdf/society_5.0.pdf

5 Ways Novice Users Can Learn Computer Science Without Fear

I had a fruitful discussion with one of the academic personnel last month on the evolution of the type of students that higher institutions may encounter. She told me that students nowadays are prone to be so dependent to their teachers or instructors on the steps that they should take to complete their tasks, projects or assignments. Even to the extent that sometimes, we had to teach them on how to Google. This is somewhat dragging the instructional process whence the search engine itself is getting smarter and smarter by its ability to predict the user’s pattern of search items.

Corresponding to her concern, I told her that through the new curricula that we are having at school right now (in Malaysia), I can see that the pattern will change in about another 5 to 10 years. This is because the syllabus was getting tougher, students hardly scored in their exams, yet their survivability to find solutions to the problems  are more dynamic and creative than current generations. I said to her, wait for another 10 years. You’ll get to meet students that already equipped with Google language and most of computer interfaces because they were born with those machines surrounding them.

Apart from that, raising the millennial kids that having been watching me working with computers and machine languages ever since they were small had made me concluded the following 5 ways for novice users to learn computer science without fear:

IMG_7427

  1. Knowledge in computer science is reusable. It is recyclable. So, if you have found a problem and not knowing on how to solve it, yes, you’ve guessed it right. Googling for solutions is not wrong. Chances are there are already about thousands other people that have faced the same problem as you do and care to share it online. The only thing that you need to know is on how to select the right path.
  2. Ask for help. Computer literacy is growing. There is always certainly someone else that knows on how to help you find a solution to your computer problems. So never shame to ask. Different questions might lead to different solutions. It is like our way of living. Different family had different members with different types of houses, decorations, food, and activities. So does this knowledge of computer science. There is always not a single solution to a repeating problem. Never afraid to improvised because computer evolves like people do.
  3. Study the history of computer. People say, you would not love someone until you get to know him/ her. Love grows by learning a person’s personality or background. Once you have found the similarity between the two of you, you might want to move forward with more than just an encounter. Perhaps good friends or mutual friendship would yield good outcome for you in the future. The same analogy goes to studying the computer. If you face a new subject, find its origin of development. From where it begins and how it has ended up in your plate in such a form. Then, you will know on how to act from there upon.
  4. A computer is an artificial presentation to a human’s brain. It means that, to understand a computer is to understand on how your brain works. If you wonder why at some point of your life you make different kind of decisions, the same thing goes to a computer. On a rainy day, you might want to use an umbrella to walk by the road side. In an extreme cold weather, you might want to turn up the temperature of your heater so that your body would feel warmer and at ease. The same thing goes to the computer. It works logically in accordance to mathematical formulas. There are instructions to follow and output to yield. There are decisions to make when met with crossroads. There are times to start up fresh, and time to sleep. Brain also undergoes aging. So does the computer. So work from this fact, then you know on how to handle the learning process of computer science.
  5. A computer has no emotions. So, apart from all other logic knowledge that you may think a computer can do, never expect a computer to weep and cry like we do. At times like this, the only thing that we should do is to have human connections. Lean over to someone that you fond of, like parents, best friends, siblings and alike on psychological supports and emotional strengths. As long as we could understand this demand, always remember that computer never feels what we feel in our hearts.

So, that’s it. Certainly there are other 1001 ways that you could motivate yourself to learn computer science without fears. Above all, the most important thing to remember is never let a computer or any machine alike to over rule your intelligence and decision making. These things always rely on us to navigate them for the right processes and not the other way around.

Celebrate the good and positive things in the future generations of this millennium that were born with computers and machines around them.

The Attraction of Malaysian TVET

First of all, congratulations to YB Nurul Izzah Anwar for the appointment as the Head of TVET Committees in Malaysia. This is in conjunction with the press statement made by the Minister of Education of Malaysia on 21st June 2018, YB Dr. Maszlee Malik. TVET stands for Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Prior to this announcement, TVET is always referred to the agenda under the Ministry of Human Resources of Malaysia whilst the implementation of its training and education curricula had been carried out by various ministries including Ministry of Education, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Higher Education, Ministry of Rural Development, and Ministry of Tourism and Culture.

Apart from the political arrangements and the domestic issues on this matter, I would like to make a brief comparison on the ministerial and administration agencies that had made this movement practical in other countries. This post is intended to be deliberated from the viewpoints of intellectuality and feasibility of this policy that had already been delivered by various countries in the world and occasionally share their political, economic, and social growth conferences between each other.

Prior to this post, I had already made a post on the TVET and Its Landscape in Malaysia annotating the different functions and roles between the major ministries that are participating in this movement. I have also briefly quoting major skills qualification frameworks within the ASEAN countries in another blog post. Please feel free to revisit those posts if you are kind of lost on why I am highlighting this issue for this entry.

Every movement, policy and decision made are usually based on tremendous study and research within the specific thematic work and previous work deliverables. The decision of putting the skills qualification administration and management under the Ministry of Human Resources (MoHR) Malaysia had also its share on its inception. Perhaps, in analogy we can take from the viewpoint of a production-based company or organisation. Every organisation has its human resources department. This department is responsible to ensure that its employees are keep updated with the latest technology and skills equipment so that the quality of work and the quantity of production can match the demand from the clients. The employees, in this case, are in reference to those working in the production line with the positions of operators, and even up to the supervisory level. Hence, the rationale on why the movement of TVET in Malaysia was originally foreseen by the MoHR.

As time passes by, these employees demanded that they should also be given the opportunities to further their studies to a higher level qualification. From skills-based to academic endeavour. These workers requested that the academic-based agencies should recognise their abilities in the skills that they have displayed and contributed so that they would also be qualified for a higher degree programmes from prestigious higher learning institutions. This had triggered the mismatch between the skills qualification certification with the admission requirements by the universities decision makers.

Ministerial Comparisons
Figure 1. The Ministerial Comparison of TVET Administration Between Malaysia with the Rest of the World.

The above figure is showing the Ministerial Comparison of TVET Administration Between Malaysia with the Rest of the World including the ASEAN countries and major developed countries. The choices of administering ministries are from both of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Labour (which is also similar to MoHR). Each has her own reason on why such specific agency was chosen over another. There are also countries that have distinct agencies that manage and administer TVET movement without much dependent on their main ministries.

From the diagram, it is learned that most countries believe that it is best that TVET is under the administration of Ministry of Education. Only third countries like Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam and including Malaysia had decided that MoHR is much suitable [1]. As an additional information, European Countries have their own governing agency that manages the TVET movement which is known as CEDEFOP (stands for European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training). Among participating countries under the administration of CEDEFOP include Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom [2]. On the other hand, countries like Japan which is very much well-known for its high-skilled workers and disciplined people had also decided that its best for TVET to be foreseen by their Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology [3].

Personally, I am looking forward to the positive changes that might be brought upon by the Government of Malaysia on issues pertaining TVET and its relevancy, qualifications and prospects either locally or internationally. Each action has its strengths and weaknesses. Might as well that we study the background and history of a policy made to project a better outcome and lower the setbacks that we have encountered in the past.

All the best for all TVET practitioners.

References:

[1] ILO, URL: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—asia/—ro-bangkok/—sro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_310231.pdf

[2] CEDEFOP, URL: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources

[3] THE CHANGING STATUS OF VOCATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION IN CONTEMPORARY JAPAN AND THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA, URL: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001868/186837e.pdf

Other Sources:

[1] ASQA

[2] City & Guilds

[3] SQA

[4] BMBF

[5] US Skills Training

[6] MQA

[7] DSD, MoHR

TVET and Its Landscape in Malaysia

TVET and the Landscape of Skills Training in Malaysia

Someone asked me, “Do you know about TVET?”

I said, “Yes, I do.”

Then he further enquired, “Can you help me to give briefing about this thing?”

I was skeptical. TVET in Malaysia involves at least 7 ministries with different and diverse purpose, objectives, certification and recognition.

Then I asked him in return, “In what way that you wanted the briefing be?”

“Are you authorized to talk about it?”

He said, “Yes. I was given the authority to talk about it and I am going to talk about TVET in Polytechnics in Malaysia.”

I nodded. Understood. He was just asking about one tenth (1/10) only of the real scenario and landscape of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Malaysia.

TVET Landscape Malaysia

Basically, TVET involves the following ministries:

  1. Ministry of Human Resources (Kementerian Sumber Manusia) which coordinates the TVET and Skills Qualification for Occupational Framework in Malaysia, specifically for the skills training at the institutions under this ministry which is administered by Manpower Department (Jabatan Tenaga manusia) including: Institut Latihan Perindustrian (ILP) – 23 centres, Advanced Technology Training Centre (ADTEC) – 8 centres, Japan-Malaysian Technical Institute (JMTI) – 1 centre and Centre for Instructors and Advanced Skills Training (CIAST) – 1 centre.

Simultaneously, this ministry also administers the accreditation, certification, recognition and qualification of the skills training centres and skilled workforce including the issuance of certification for accredited centers and skilled personnel. For such a purpose the main agency that delivers this is the Department of Skills Development (Jabatan Pembangunan Kemahiran). The certificate issued by this agency is known as Malaysian Skills Certificate (Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia), Malaysian Skills Diploma (Diploma Kemahiran Malaysia), and Malaysia Skills Advanced Diploma (Diploma Lanjutan Kemahiran Malaysia).

2. Ministry of Higher Education (Kementerian Pendidikan Tinggi). This ministry coordinates the higher learning institutions specifically those that deliver the modules for TVET which include Polytechnics and Community Colleges. There are about 36 polytechnics and 94 community colleges all over Malaysia. These centres are administered by Department of Higher Learning (Jabatan Pengajian Tinggi).

However, there is no specific single accreditation or certification body that administers the issuance of the certificates for polytechnics and community colleges. Each will issue its own certificate to the students whilst the authorization for training implementation is solely delivered under the approval of its governing agency i.e. JPT.

(For an additional note, Ministry of Higher Education puts more efforts and deliberation on the accreditation of higher learning institutions especially for the level of education that leads to the conferment of the degrees for Bachelor, Master, and Doctorate which is managed by Malaysian Qualifications Agency (MQA)).

3. Ministry of Youth and Sports (Kementerian Belia dan Sukan). The training centres under the supervision of this ministry include: Institut Kemahiran Belia Negara (IKBN) – 13 centres, Institut Kemahiran Tinggi Belia Negara (IKTBN) – 8 centres, and Akademi Kemahiran Belia Golf (AKBG) – 1 centre. This ministry solely follows the regulations and procedures of accreditation set by JPK, KSM (as mentioned in No. 1 above) for the issuance of their SKM, DKM, and DLKM besides their in-house certification procedures and graduation requirements.

4. Ministry of Education (Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia). The training centres under this ministry that observe the implementation of TVET include: Kolej Vokasional (KV) – 77 centres and more than 60 secondary schools that offer classes for the skills modules which is known as Program Asas Vokasional (PAV). This ministry follows both the regulations and procedures of accreditation set by JPK, KSM (as mentioned in No. 1 above) and the procedures by the ministry itself under the supervision of Division of Technical and Vocational Education (Bahagian Pendidikan Teknik dan Vokasional).

As a matter of fact, as a graduation fulfilment for the trainees that undergo the programmes under this ministry, they are qualified to be awarded with double skills certificates which include either the combination of or one of the following: Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia (SKM) / Sijil Vokasional Malaysia (SVM), Diploma Kemahiran Malaysia (DKM) / Diploma Vokasional Malaysia (DVM), and Diploma Lanjutan Kemahiran Malaysia (DLKM) / Diploma Lanjutan Vokasional Malaysia (DLVM).

5. Ministry of Agriculture (Kementerian Pertanian). The training centres under this ministry that observe the implementation of TVET and skills training are managed by National Agriculture Training Council (NATC) which include: Institut Pertanian – 7 centres, Institut Perikanan – 3 centres, and Institut Veterinar – 2 centres. This ministry does not issue its own certification procedure rather than following the rules and regulations set by JPK, KSM (as mentioned in No. 1 above). Whilst, the accreditation and authorization for training implementation is solely delivered under the approval of its governing agency i.e. NATC.

6. Ministry of Rural and Regional Development (Kementerian Kemajuan Luar Bandar dan Wilayah). This ministry observe the TVET implementation. However, currently it is issuing its certification for its trainees under its own regulations and procedures and yet to coordinate with the rest of TVET institutions as mentioned in items No. 1 -5. The training centres under this ministry is managed by Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA) which include: Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi MARA (KKTM) – 10 centres, Institut Kemahiran MARA (IKM) – 14 centres, MARA-Japan Industrial Institute (MJII) – 1 centre and GiatMARA (various numbers).

7. Ministry of Tourism and Culture (Kementerian Pelancongan dan Kebudayaan). This ministry, like KBS (item No. 3) and MOA (item No. 5), does not issue its own training certification procedure rather than following the rules and regulations set by JPK, KSM (as mentioned in No. 1 above). However, they do have the control on the issuance on the licensing and accreditation of their training centres and tourism agencies. The training centres under this ministry is known as Institut Latihan Pelancongan (Tourism Training Institute, ILP) which the number is not made public.

The subject matter of TVET and its development is indeed a universal subject in this country besides the requirements in the mainstream of education system and higher learning institutions. Nobody can claim that they own this particular subject matter more than another parties because each carries its own distinct functions, roles and responsibilities. Hence, it is wise to regard TVET as a national subject among the public, parents, and business matter interests.

Sources:

  1. Malaysia – National Skills Development Act (NASDA) 2006, (Act 652), DSD.
  2. Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi), MOHE.
  3. ANSSR – Enhancing the Quality and Relevance of TVET for Current and Future Industry Needs, APEC.
  4. Qualification and Skills Mismatch – Concept and Measurement, ILO.
  5. Assessment of the Readiness of ASEAN Member States for Implementation of the Commitment to the Free Flow of Skilled Labour Within the ASEAN Economic Community (2015), ILO.
  6. International Labour Standard on Vocational Guidance and Training, ILO.