World Civilization and History of Technology

What makes our development of technology today is a yield of historical value of human kind ever since they have existed on this planet (i.e. Earth).

  1. Sumerian Civilization (3500 B.C. to 2000 B.C.), in the Middle East between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. It is the world’s first civilization where people lived together in a city-state. Invented a written language, developed science and mathematics to a high degree, developed a 12-month lunar calendar, invented wheel and made vehicles, and invented the plow and sailboat. The notable prophet to live in this era is Adam (A.S.).
  2. Babylonian Civilization (2000 B.C. to 1155 B.C.), located on the Euphrates River. It is the birthplace of a devised code of laws known as Code of Hammurabi, ability to study astronomy, and created beautiful gardens of Gate of Ishtar and Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The notable prophet to live in this era is Idris, Noah, and Ibrahim (A.S.).

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 5.46.44 PM
    Image source:
    https://www.history.com/news/hanging-gardens-existed-but-not-in-babylon
  3. Assyrian Civilization (1600 B.C. to 612 B.C.), in Northern Mesopotamia. It created the first library, built a system of road, ruled their extended kingdom with appointed governors, the first to develop a standing army, and developed a mail service. The notable prophet to live in this era include Ishaq, Ya’qub, and Ayyub (A.S.).
  4. Hittites Civilization (1750 B.C. to 1200 B.C.), located in Anatolia, the ancient name for Asian Minor. During this time, people started using iron, signed peace treaties, and established a set of laws considered the fairest of the time. The notable prophet during this time include Ilyas, Ilyasa’, Dawud (A.S.).
  5. Egyptian Civilization (3100 B.C. to 332 B.C.), located along the Nile River in northeast Africa. It built the pyramids; the sphinx; canals; and temples, invented solar calendar with 365 days, made a paper-like material from the papyrus plant, used a loom to weave cloth, and invented a system of writing called hieroglyphics. The generations to live in this era was believed to be from the son of Noah (A.S.) named Yafith.
  6. Chinese Civilization (beginning 5000 B.C.), in the valleys of the Huang He and Chang Jiang Rivers in Asia. It has created silk, Great Wall of China, gunpowders, rockets, magnetic compass, book printing, paper money, and porcelain.
  7. Mongol Civilization (A.D. 1206 to 1368), in the Steppe region between Siberia and northwest China. It was the largest contiguous empire in world history, excellent horsemen, and fierce warriors. This era occurred after the death of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
  8. Indus Valley Civilization (2500 B.C. to 1750 B.C.), in the Western part of South Asia in what is now Pakistan and western India. It built dams and canals for irrigation, well-planned cities, one of the world’s first drainage and sewer systems for a city, among the first people to cultivate cotton, among the first people to domesticate animals.
  9. Minoan Civilization (2000 B.C. to 1450 B.C.), in Crete, a large island between Asia Minor and Greece. It is the first civilization in Europe, one of the first social cultures with social equality, built elaborate palaces and large homes for its citizens, and women were treated more fairly than in other cultures of the time. This civilization emerges after the era of Prophet Nuh (A.S.) and most probably from his son named Sam.

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 5.48.40 PM
    image source: https://slideplayer.com/slide/9745654/
  10. Mycenaen Civilization (1650 B.C. to 1200 B.C.), on the mainland of Greece. They have systematic administration with leaders, warriors and war. Excellent traders and craftsmen. The generations most probably originated from son of Sam son of Prophet Noah (A.S.).
  11. Greek Civilization (800 B.C. to 323 B.C.), on the mainland of Greece and surrounding islands influencing colonies around Mediterranean Sea. It has formed the world’s first democracy system, dramas, and arts, built magnificent buildings, statues, literature, poetry, scientific approach to study of medicine, write histories, plants classification, rules for geometry and other mathematical contributions.

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 6.00.36 PM
    image source: https://www.thegreatcoursesplus.com/ancient-greek-civilization
  12. Celtic Civilization (800 B.C. to A.D 200), in Europe. It produced skillful artisan, artists, and musicians, excellent farmers, fearless warriors, built roads to expand into other countries, and the first people in Northern Europe to make iron.
  13. Viking Civilization (8th to 11th Century A.D.), in Scandinavian countries known as Norway, Denmark and Sweden in modern days. They have excellent seamen, navigators, craftsmen, shipbuilders, traders, explorers, and great story-tellers which they represent in the form of sagas, many of the name of the days are from the Norse language. They exist after the death of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
  14. Phoenician Civilization (2000 B.C. to 800 B.C.), in West Asia. Invention of alphabets, and writing systems, greatest traders, talented craftsmen, techniques of glassblowing, excellent navigators, sailors and shipbuilders. This generation is believed to be rooted from the son of Noah named Kana’an and notable prophets to live in this era include Hud, Saleh, Lut, Ismail, Shuib, Zulkifli, Yunus, and Yahya (A.S.).
  15. Hebrew Civilization (2000 B.C. to 30 B.C.), in the Middle East. It is a highlight on the origins of religions believing in One God, other related creations are such as Ten Commandments and the miracle of Torah and Old Testament. The notable prophets to live in this era include Ibrahim, Ishaq, Ya’qub, Yusuf, Ayyub, Musa, Harun, Zulkifli, Dawud, Sulaiman, Ilyas, Ilyasa’, Yunus, and Zakariya (A.S.).

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 5.56.52 PM
    image source: https://ourladyofgoodshepherd.net/twelve-tribes-of-israel
  16. Persian Civilization (550 B.C. to 330 B.C.), in the East of the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East. It built roads and canals, divided the empire into provinces, and wrote Avesta i.e. Persian holy book of Zoroasterism.
  17. Byzantine Civilization (A.D. 284 to 1450), in the Europe on the eastern section of Roman Empire. It preserved Greek and Roman Culture and Law, great works of art including architecture, mosaics, enamel work, ivory carving, metal work. It is enhancement of the spread of Christianity. It is an era of post-death of Prophet Isa and the spread of Islam by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers.

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 6.02.18 PM
    image source: https://slideplayer.com/slide/1585394/
  18. Olmec Civilization (1200 B.C. to 100 B.C.), in Southern Gulf coast of Mexico to El Salvador. It built temples, monuments, and pyramids, developed first calendar in Americas, carved huge stone heads, built stone pavements and drainage systems, and had counting systems.

As an additional factor to the different creations and inventions of materials, machines and methods by the mankind, the following notable empires are distinguishing them from one another:

  1. Etruscan Empire (800 B.C. to 300 B.C.)
  2. Alexander’s Empire (336 B.C. to 323 B.C.)
  3. Roman Empire (500 B.C. to A.D. 1453)
  4. Ottoman Empire (A.D. 800 to 1923). Many science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education are based upon the findings during this era. It has one notable era known as Islamic Golden Age where names like al-Khawarizmi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn Khuld, al-Jabar, al-Hazen, al-Kindi, and al-Biruni emerged. The technologies developed during this era include in metaphysics, astronomy, algebra, calculus, geometry, trigonometry, biology, physics, and chemistry.

    Screen Shot 2018-09-23 at 6.04.51 PM
    image source: http://www.pearltrees.com/u/53944586-wikipedia-encyclopedia
  5. African Empire (2000 B.C. to present). It was believed that the generations that reside in this continent were originated from the son of Noah (A.S.) with the name of Ham. They have distinguished characteristics until today with many achievements and notable foundations.
  6. Mayan Empire (1000 B.C. to A.D. 900)
  7. Aztec Empire (A.D. 1200 to 1521)
  8. Inca Empire (A.D. 1100 to 1532)

 

Reference:

  1. Blattner, D. “World Civilizations and Cultures“, Mark Twain Media Inc., USA (2012).
  2. Syauqi Abu Khalil, “Atlas Al-Quran“, Dar al-Fikr, Damascus (2006). (Translated by Muhammad Abdul Ghoffar, Penerbit Almahira, Jakarta, Indonesia).

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