Everything About Doing Research

What is a research?

  • Discovery of a new knowledge
  • Systematic and organized effort to investigate specific problem

Why doing a research?

  • Internal drive vs external drive
  • Attempts to seek answer to questions
  • Draws conclusions to data
  • Generalize conclusion
  • Adds to the existing body of knowledge
  • Improves understanding of the real world
  • Improves understanding of our own practice

Types of Research

  • Basic/ Pure/ Fundamental
    • to improve understanding
    • to generate knowledge
    • to build theories
  • Applied
    • to solve a current existing problem

Characteristics of Research

  • Questions/ Problem statement
  • Goal (s)
  • Specific plan
  • Divide into sub-problems
  • Research questions/ hypotheses
  • Accept assumptions
  • Collect and interpret data
  • Cyclical


Research Process

  1. Determine the specific area of interest
  2. Extensive literature survey
  3. Refinement of the research topics
  4. Preparing the research design
  5. Collecting the data
  6. Analysis of data
  7. Preparation of the report and presentation of the results

Research Model

  • Asking the questions
  • Identifying important factors
  • Formulating a hypothesis
  • Collecting relevant information
  • Testing the hypothesis
  • Working with the hypothesis
  • Reconsidering the theory
  • Asking new questions

Research Process (as illustrated in the diagram above)

The research process is a set of operations which aid the researcher in the systematic gathering, recording and analysis of data to help solve decision making problems.

Characteristics of Scientific Research

  • Purposiveness
  • Rigor
  • Testability
  • Replicability
  • Precision and Confidence
  • Objectivity
  • Able to generalize
  • Parsimony

Research Methodology

  • Gather data
  • Analyze data
  • Conclude


Deduction is the process by which we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logical generalization of a known fact.

Deductive reasoning:

Develop theory => Formulate hypothesis => Collect and analyse data => Accept/ reject hypotheses


Induction is a process where we observe certain phenomena and on this basis arrive at conclusions.

Inductive reasoning:

Observe phenomena => Analyse patterns and themes => Formulate relationships => Develop theory

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